24/03/2024 - 07:10

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Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: Overview


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), also known as prostate gland enlargement, is a common condition that affects men, especially as they age. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. When the prostate enlarges, it can squeeze the urethra, causing urinary symptoms.

Some common symptoms of BPH include:

1- Frequent or urgent need to urinate

This can be especially bothersome at night, disrupting sleep (nocturia).

2- Difficulty starting urination

Some men may have trouble initiating urination or may experience a weak urine stream.

3- Weak urine stream

The flow of urine may be weak or intermittent.

4- Dribbling at the end of urination

After urination is complete, some men may continue to dribble urine.

5- Incomplete emptying of the bladder

The sensation that the bladder isn't completely empty after urination.

Risk Factors

1- Age

BPH is more common in older men. It usually begins in middle age and becomes more common with increasing age.

2- Family History

If a close relative, such as a father or brother, has had BPH, you may be more likely to develop it.

3-Hormonal Changes

Changes in hormonal balance, particularly the decrease in testosterone levels that occurs with age, may contribute to the development of BPH.

4- Lifestyle Factors

Certain lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity, obesity, and a diet high in fat and refined sugars, may increase the risk of BPH.

5- Medical Conditions

Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease, may be associated with an increased risk of developing BPH.


1- Medical History and Physical Examination

Your doctor will likely ask about your medical history and perform a physical examination, including a digital rectal exam (DRE), to assess the size and condition of your prostate.

2- Urinary Symptoms Assessment

Your doctor may use standardized questionnaires to assess the severity of your urinary symptoms and their impact on your quality of life.

3- Urinalysis

A urinalysis may be performed to rule out other conditions, such as urinary tract infections, that could be causing your symptoms.

4- Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

A PSA blood test may be done to help rule out prostate cancer, which can cause similar symptoms.

Treatment Options

1- Watchful Waiting

For men with mild symptoms, especially if they are not significantly bothered by them, watchful waiting or active surveillance may be recommended.

2- Medications

Medications such as alpha-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, or combination therapy may be prescribed to help relieve symptoms.

3- Minimally Invasive Procedures

Procedures such as transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), or prostatic urethral lift (UroLift) may be performed to reduce prostate size and improve urine flow.

4- Surgery

In cases of severe symptoms or complications, such as bladder stones or urinary retention, surgical options such as transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser therapy, or open prostatectomy may be considered.

Lifestyle Changes

1- Fluid Management

Limiting fluids, especially before bedtime, can help reduce nighttime urinary symptoms.

2- Bladder Training

Techniques to improve bladder control and reduce urinary urgency may be helpful.

3- Dietary Changes

A diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, and low in fat and refined sugars, may help manage symptoms.

4- Regular Exercise

Regular physical activity may help improve urinary symptoms and overall health.


While BPH is not cancerous and does not increase the risk of prostate cancer, it can cause significant discomfort and affect quality of life. Treatment options for BPH vary depending on the severity of symptoms and may include lifestyle changes, medication, minimally invasive procedures, or surgery.

It's essential for individuals experiencing urinary symptoms to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of BPH. Left untreated, BPH can lead to complications such as urinary tract infections, bladder stones, or bladder damage.
It's important for individuals with BPH to work closely with their healthcare providers to develop a personalized treatment plan based on their symptoms, preferences, and overall health. Regular follow-up visits are essential to monitor symptoms and adjust treatment as needed.

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