Malignant neoplasm, commonly known as cancer, refers to a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. Unlike benign tumors, malignant neoplasms can invade nearby tissues and, in some cases, metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Cancer can affect virtually any part of the body, and the specific type of malignant neoplasm is named according to the tissue or organ where it originates. For example, lung cancer originates in the lungs, breast cancer in the breast tissues, and colon cancer in the colon or large intestine.
The development of malignant neoplasms is often a multistep process involving genetic mutations that lead to uncontrolled cell division and a loss of normal cellular functions. Risk factors for developing cancer include genetic predisposition, exposure to carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke or ultraviolet radiation), certain infections, unhealthy lifestyle choices, and other environmental factors.
Early detection, proper diagnosis, and appropriate treatment are crucial in managing malignant neoplasms effectively. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and other specialized approaches, depending on the type and stage of cancer.
Regular screenings, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and following medical recommendations can help reduce the risk of developing malignant neoplasms and improve overall health outcomes.