Although there are many reasons for blood in the urine, nothing is as scary as bladder cancer. In today's article, I will talk about bladder cancer.
It is a common type of cancer worldwide. Although it is seen in both sexes, it is more common in men. With the increase in industrialization, the incidence of bladder cancer is increasing.
Smoking is among the leading causes of bladder cancer. Frequency of smoking or exposure plays an important role in the development of cancer. Electronic cigarettes, which seem very innocent and whose frequency of use is increasing, have not been adequately evaluated. However, when electronic cigarettes are used, cancer-causing substances have been found in the urine. Occupational exposure to aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons is the second most common for bladder cancer after smoking. This type of occupational exposure occurs mainly in industrial plants that process paints, paints, metals and petroleum product. There are studies showing that the genetic history has a partial effect.
The stage of bladder cancer affects both the treatment and survival of the patient. While the tumor in the mucous layer on the inner surface of the bladder is classified as the lowest stage, reaching the muscle layer increases the risk of spread. however, the fact that it has reached the outermost layer, the serosa, is considered a more advanced stage and adversely affects the survival of the patient. While there are treatment methods that can be endoscopic in the early stage, radical surgery comes to the fore in the advanced stage.
History is very important for diagnosis. Especially exposure to cigarettes and chemicals should be questioned. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is painless clotted hematuria. In early-stage bladder cancer, we may not find any finding on physical examination. Although imaging methods are at the forefront of diagnostic tools, they cannot be as effective as endoscopic examination.
Computed tomography urography and intravenous urography, Ultrasound and Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging are imaging methods that help the diagnosis.
Urine cytology, ie pathological examination of urine, is useful in detecting cancer cells in the urinary system. The ultimate diagnostic tool is cystoscopy. In other words, it is the endoscopic examination of the bladder and urethra. For all these procedures, the experience of the uropathologist is very important.
Be sure to take bleeding in the urine seriously and consult your physician to be investigated. Since bladder cancer is a detailed and intense subject, I will talk about the treatment of bladder cancer in our next article. Best regards.